The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium is one of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) genera with respect to the diversity, magnitude and consequences of blooms. Due to the public health and ecosystem impacts of Alexandrium blooms, the genus has been extensively studied, and there exists a broad knowledge base that ranges from taxonomy and phylogeny through genomics and toxin biosynthesis to bloom dynamics and modeling. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. In this study, a detailed molecular and microscopic characterization of plankton communities was performed, together with an analysis of the occurrence and spatial patterns of lipophilic toxins in a HAB prone area, located in the Southeastern Pacific fjord region. Monitoring programs are established to respond to current legislation and focus on regulated marine toxins. Reproduced material should be attributed as follows: If the material has been adapted instead of reproduced from the original RSC publication
This work describes the development of a robust, scalable synthetic sequence relying on a convergent strategy that delivered a sufficient amount of the toxin for detailed biological studies and its commercialization for use by other research groups and regulatory agencies. The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium contains several toxin producing species and strains, which can cause major economic losses to the shell fish industry.

Dinoflagellates are particularly refractory to genomic analysis due to the enormous genome size, lack of knowledge about their DNA composition and structure, and peculiarities of gene regulation, such as spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing and mRNA transposition mechanisms. These were compared with light microscopy cell counts.

The spirolides and gymnodimines are marine phycotoxins included in the group of cyclic imines. For synergism study, longibrachin-A-I, a 20-mer peptaibol isolated from cultures of a marine-derived strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai was chosen. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day. To Your Health: Three Well-Known Alkaloids. Our studies have paved the way for the production of certified standards to be used for mass-spectrometric determination of these toxins in marine matrices and for the development of tests to detect these toxins in contaminated shellfish.

Such molecules, once assumed by seafood, easily find their way up to the table of unaware consumers. In order to avoid public health impacts, there is a need for adequate monitoring programs, a need for establishing appropriate legislation, and a need for optimizing effective methods of analysis. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. The conditions which promote HAB have not yet been fully explained, though climate change and anthropogenic intervention are pointed as significant factors.

In the present work, the bioavailability of 13-desMethyl spirolide C (13-desMeC) in the brain and in vivo effects were tested. The present research aimed to study CIs in mussels farmed in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) during the period 2014–2015. L-1).
In all cases the Ref.

Surprisingly, the repeats comprise a very limited set of 79-97 bp sequences; in part the genome is thus a relatively uniform sequence space interrupted by coding sequences. Covering: up to August 2014 From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. The Acute toxicity bioassay on this biological model was tested with a panel of different toxins (microbial, algal or fungal).

Bioassay results confirmed its neuroactivity. The aim of this work is the application of LC-MS/MS to the analysis of gymnodimines (GYMs), spirolides (SPXs), pinnatoxins (PnTXs), and pteriatoxins (PtTXs) in mussels from Galician Rias, northwest Spain, the main production area in Europe, and therefore a representative emplacement for their evaluation. Spirolides are a kind of marine toxins included in the cyclic imine toxin group and produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. Aim of the study is recently published data on occurrence, chemical structure, poisoning potential and methods for determination of emerging toxins in European coastal waters to be reviewed.

Moreover, particular phytoplankton blooms can directly affect humans through contaminated marine aerosol. Our results displayed a complex phytoplankton-phycotoxin pattern and for the first time contribute to the characterization of high-resolution phytoplankton community composition and phycotoxin distribution in fjords of the Southeastern Pacific region. E-mail: The designed probes allow the production of quantitative information for Alexandrium species for the microarray chip. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. These data indicate for the first time that 13-desMeC cross the blood brain barrier and shows in vivo beneficial effects against AD after administration of low intraperitoneal doses of this marine toxin.

In 2009, we achieve the first inhibition FP assay to detect imine cyclic toxins.

Abstract We recently employed a silicon‐stereogenic silane as astereochemical probe to clarify the mechanism of the B(C6F5)3‐catalyzed hydrosilylation of ketones.

This toxin may inspire a novel medical treatment of age-related diseases. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals and books: For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals.

Growth rates were highly variable but only elevated or lowered salinity significantly lowered growth rate for A. tamarense Group I and Group III; differences in RNA content were not significant for the majority of the treatments. They are nonproteinaceous and heat-stable compounds responsible for a series of human poisonings caused by contaminated seafood consumption or by seawater/aerosol exposure. A liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method with fast polarity switching and a scheduled multiple reaction monitoring algorithm mode was developed for multiclass screening and identification of lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve molluscs. Spirolides constitute the largest family among cyclic imine toxins.

A central transformation in the synthesis is the highly diastereoselective Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of a complex α,α-disubstituted allylic ester based on a unique mode for stereoselective enolization through a chirality match between the substrate and the lithium amide base.

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