An alkane undergoes no reaction with bromine water and therefore there is no colour change. '9b5X�T���GN�y�ֿ��hwul�����H�A���U�ܯ�屓6�N�#XG����g%���f~�����)�cA3���T�f�K*�Q�w)���Sѐ�nF0K�5G��H�W��E(O�A��L2 W�!>8�{T[L:��;@�f6E=�Y͘pu�H���2���\�kȿ{^@�0|?�ܼ�G�m�+�}?d���xz\|-�ӪZ�

Bromine water test (saturation test) The bromine water test is a qualitative test, used to identify the alkene or alkane functional groups present in the compound. This reaction is the reaction between alkenes and halogens.

For both the Baeyer and Bromine test six test tubes were prepared. 865 푔푚퐿 ×106.59 푔1 푚표푙 ×1 푚표푙1 푚표푙×70.135 푔푚표푙 = 2.28 g 2-methyl-1-butene

In order to increase the percent yield of the outcome Le Chatelier's principle is utilized which

This will form an alkyloxonium ion that will act as a leaving group that forms a

The two main purposes of this lab were to prepare 2-methyl-2-butene and 2-methyl-1-butene. manipulates the concentration used in the procedure. Testing for alkanes and alkenes Bromine water.

methylbutane and potassium hydroxide by an E2 mechanism.

Shake. Alkyne.

To create alkenes by the dehydration reactions the alcohols are heated with the presence

��.|�I��U0��D� ���+����b{b̷����i��[3?�KE��#�ib1�5�TcxY�t�����c��V�,N|���C\�d q�7ݘ��-qEs�8�jB�ݑ�y3�I3r��Β�ɑ��GC_6&L�$u�m2/�kd_y/ ����/�m�2�cB���'�m+��+r�7���L��8�l�[I���M�'ȉa��?g!_� �x*�4� �1P��y��ә��W#��7Uƨ�&Gjޛ�_���Tz5�z�ͦk�r�© �;c��U�N�[��� Edition, Hayden-McNeil, LLC, Plymouth, MI, 2013. Alkenes are called unsaturated compounds.

The presence of the double bond in alkenes makes them more reactive than alkanes. Alkanes are saturated and contain single bonds. w2��$��i�w�F]^��i0��I��ڸ;�&{��"��:PHT�ϭ�g��* ����Rmآ when viewing the ideal percent composition calculated from the GC graphs.

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Molar Percent 2-methyl-1-butene = 1309 푚푉푠+1309 푚푉푠2575 푚푉푠× 100% = 33.7%

Using the peaks

Figure: Step 1 in mechanism of addition of Bromine to cyclohexane, Figure: Step 2 in mechanism of addition of Bromine to cyclohexane. An alkene will turn brown bromine water colourless as the bromine reacts with the carbon-carbon double bond. A reaction can be

Label the test tubes #1-6. alkenes.

To analyze the product distribution gas chromatography(GC) is used. not the anti-coplanar relationship which means the reaction is unable to proceed in the correct Alkenes are unsaturated and decolourise an orange solution of bromine water.

This reaction proves, alkenes are unsaturated organic compounds. reaction 1-2 drops is added to one test tube and from the E2 reaction 1-2 drops is placed into the The bromine water turns colourless confirming the presence of an alkene. They contain only single bonds and the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom. The final tube should have no additional factors. ����k�k���uv��7�I4��� ���+���&�5��7�+����Z��`f�0?���7����V_̬��Q�Կശj:Zs�^;ޅ�a�

second tube. In fact this reaction will occur for unsaturated compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds.

endstream endobj startxref Summary The bromine water test is focused on the determination of saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons. Excluding the control requirement for the stereochemistry. 0.10 M of KMnO 4 was added into each test tube. No change in colour to bromine water is observed confirming the presence of an alkane.

separation of liquids occurs with lower boiling points than with what we see in simple These variances include the

Testing alkanes and alkenes using bromine water How to distinguish between and alkene and alkane using bromine water.

Missed the LibreFest? determine the presence of alkenes in the final product. As the reaction proceeds, the volatile alkenes are distilled off and collected, which removes them from the reaction.

I produce a double bond in my product. leaving group.

�}6^b��ٞ�{��jSm���Q�cg7�\�m/T{ô�'�4������'��n�����&���Et�j>�}��e�MEs=��9o)Ԥӻi���M�"C'�OY��l���? KOH 56.11 g n/a 3.00 g 53.62 2. Dehydration is the reverse of the addition of water to an alkene. This type of reaction is called an addition reaction and the addition of bromine to an alkene is called bromination. Weight Density Rxn

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Figure 1: E1 reaction(left) and E2 reaction(right) @;*Pao��ί��롹����͹}

Enols undergo the bromine water test and brominated ketone is formed. A reaction between the ketone and bromine water is an electrophilic alpha substitution reaction, adjacent to the carbonyl group and gives the colourless solution of brominated compounds.

ability of potassium permanganate to oxidize the carbon-carbon double bonds which will give II.

considered as regioselective if the reaction is able to happen in more than one direction with a

Add ~10 mg of a solid unknown/known or 100l of a liquid unknown to tube 1. The next portion of the lab utilizing fractional distillation. In the case of the reaction with ethene, 1,2-dibromoethane is formed. graphs showed different results with percentages of 66.0% of 2-methyl-1-butene and 34.0% of 2-

H�lTKs� ��W�Q���@O_3��g�2= [t� ����&�^l!-�����1;��,{�Yn(c�̟ǢG�{�����ٳ2��;�5��J�g��فz�A�V���=�Y�N��aV.N�O�=��5���� 8���n�"�z5Z3Ѷ{ѱ>��r���c�;�ë���\�L��;��͇�� �o� a���K��~Y�E�6�L�?`O�FQ����.֡V+�'P~uҬ�S��1dUu_#khD�-i��S�, �GC_6&L�$u�m2/�kd_y/ ����/�m�2�cB���'�m+��+r�7���L��8�l�[I���M�'ȉa��?g!_� �x*�4� �1P��y��ә��W#��7Uƨ�&Gjޛ�_���Tz5�z�ͦk�r�© �;c��U�N�[���
double bond of alkenes and create dibromo alkanes.

Lastly several drops of What will the bromine test tell us about the product? pVH�

0 Reaction of alkene and liquid bromine If one double exists in the alkene molecule, it reacts with one molecule of Br 2 and two bromine atoms are added to the alkene to form alkyl halide compounds.


Three test tubes are prepared with 1.00 mL of H 2 O in each. The test also identifies the presence of an aldehyde group in the compound. Calculations clear direction that is favored over the other. larger peak of 2-methyl-2-butene demonstrates is was a highly substituted product. H�tTMo�0��+F��H���k96J/�T�P/Q^�Zb��t��vI�^�o�{��͗(��9$�����!Jx��94�葵�)>p��v1���Q�ӳ���u�h�DBr����G&™� �av�8�.���r�3|I��m (y*W */�i�LN?��5��'X�=�eB���@�^1�D|��~�Ep��%R�/EY�CU�PJ�+���T5��L��/��㣨2N;s� Figure: Step 1 in mechanism of addition of Bromine to ethene. Bromine water is used to identify the functional group present in the organic compound by halogenation mechanism. If an aqueous solution of bromine is used ("bromine water"), you get a mixture of products.

This higher reactivity of the alkenes over alkanes allows us to distinguish them. “anti” against the leaving group.

The bromine test was an example of one of the most common reactions of hydrocarbons- the electrophilic addition reaction. But, liquid alkenes like cyclohexene react with bromine water solution in the presence of tetrachloromethane. Legal.


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